An introduction to Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence, is the science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if is done by a men – Marvin Minsky

Artificial Intelligence is a term first coined at Dartmouth college in 1956, the term was coined by the Cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky.

When we talk about Artificial Intelligence, we talk about a different set of mathematical algorithms used for learning from the data.

Types of Artificial Intelligence

By definition, Artificial Intelligence is the science of making a machine, do things that would require intelligence.

Based on the definition we can define three types of artificial intelligence:

  • Artificial Narrow Intelligence, aka Weak AI, is the type of AI we saw every day, this is a basic type of intelligence and is used in our actual technology, this type of intelligence is used for one scope only, example of this type of Intelligence are for example the voice assistant like Srini or Alexa, the raking system, the NLP
  • Artificial General Intelligence, this type of intelligence is when the machine are able to learn and generalize like an human do, is able to learn and produce generic result, for some expert this type of artificial intelligence is impossible to achieve
  • Artificial Super Intelligence, this type of intelligence is a type of artificial intelligence where the intelligence is more higher then an human can do

How we can see there are different types of artificial intelligence, at least the theoretical level, and all have in common the goal to make a machine learn.

Domains of artificial intelligence

In this article, we talk about Weak AI, the actual AI we see and work on every day.

Figure 1 – The domain of the artificial intelligence

Figure 1 shows the subdomain of artificial intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning.

Machine Learning is essentially a set of algorithms used for allowing a machine to learn, on the other side the Deep Learning, is a subset of methods direct derived from Machine Learning.

Machine Learning and Deep Learning

Machine Learning and its subfield Deep Learning are the core of the actual artificial intelligence, the weak AI.

Machine Learning is a subfield of computer science, the aim of machine learning, is to learn to execute a task, for which is not directly programmed, from the data.

The capability to learn from the data is an important capability from machine learning, and for artificial intelligence in general, this because, similarly how a man, or an animal, learn from experience, a computer learn from the data.

Deep Learning, is a subset of machine learning, deep learning uses a subset of the algorithm designed for machine learning and is used to solve some practical industrial problem. Some deep learning applications are for example computer vision, or natural language processing/natural language understanding.

Deep Learning differs from machine learning, and in some way expand machine learning, because in deep learning we use a set of algorithm called artificial neural network. This family of algorithms is inspired by the human brain.

Conclusion

In this short article, we just introduce what is artificial intelligence and what is the basic component of artificial intelligence. This is a first of a series of articles where we explore the different methods and algorithms used in artificial intelligence.

Every article made a deeper knowledge around a specific area of the field and is designed to give some practice knowledge in the exciting science of artificial intelligence.

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